Phytocannabinoid,Phytocannabinoids are cannabinoids that occur naturally in the cannabis plant. The classical cannabinoids are formed through decarboxylation of their respective 2-carboxylic acids (2-COOH), a process which is catalyzed by heat, light or alkaline conditions.

These cannabinoids are abundant in the viscous resin that is produced by glandular structures in the cannabis plant called trichomes. This resin is also rich in terpenes, which are responsible for the characteristic smell of the cannabis plant. The phytocannabinoids are mostly insoluble in water but are soluble in alcohol and fat and other non-polar organic solvents. In alkaline conditions, they can form water-soluble phenolate salts, being essentially phenols.

Of over 480 different compounds present in the cannabis plant, only around 66 have been identified as cannabinoids The most well known of these compounds is the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in the plant. Other common cannabinoids include cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN).

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